Overview of this Lesson

Forms are special web page elements that contain various input controls or elements and command buttons. Users can fill in the inputs and click buttons to trigger form processing (learning how to process form inputs is a separate topic and requires knowledge of a server-side programming language such as PHP or Enterprise Java). Forms are useful for gathering information from your user.

When you create an HTML form, you not only need to include the necessary elements to gather all the data you need, but you also need to validate that input data. In these next couple of tutorials we'll focus on creating forms, and in a later tutorial we'll talk about validating form data on the client-side. You can learn more about the server-side validation of form input data and processing of that input data when you learn a server-side language such as PHP or Enterprise Java.


See the following reference material from MDN:

Further Reading

You should also have a look through Accessible HTML Form at the Web Standards Project.

The Form Element

The form itself is defined by the <form> and </form> tags. As with other HTML tags, the <form> tag has a number of attributes. Most of these attributes are related to server side form validation and processing. For example, you can learn how to write a PHP script that processes form inputs.

The FORM element is the container for all of the other form input elements. You sometimes see form input elements outside of a <form> element but in this course we'll focus on complete forms.

The name Attribute

We often attach a name to a form so we can access it and it's elements inside a client-side or server-side script. For example:

<form name="frmQuiz">
    <!-- other form elements -->

You can have more than one form inside a single page, just make sure you give them each a unique name:

<form name="frmLogin">
    <!-- other form elements -->
  <h1>Java  Quiz</h1>
  <form name="frmQuiz">
    <!-- other form elements -->

The name attribute comes in handy when you want to refer to your form using JavaScript or PHP code, but you probably won't use the actual name value in HTML. Adding a name to your form is a good habit to get into so that you're used to adding it when you decide to learn JavaScript, PHP, or some other language to process and work with forms.

The action Attribute

The <form> element's action attribute indicates the name of the script or program that will process your form's input data. If your form is processed on the server, then the action attribute will contain the name of a file on the server. When the user submits the completed form, your browser will make a new HTTP Request to the file named in the action attribute. For example:

<form name="quiz" action="php/checkAnswers.php">
    <!-- other form input elements -->

Assuming this form is located at http://terminallearning.com/html/examples/form.html, then when this form is submitted, the browser will make a new Http Request to http://terminallearning.com/html/examples/php/checkAnswers.php. The request will include all the form input data.

If you leave out the action attribute, then the form will be processed by the "current page", or the page in which the form is defined. The same will be true if you use action="#". Note that using action="" is now considered invalid HTML, although it used to also indicate that a form should be processed by the current page.

The method Attribute

The method attribute defines the request method, or the type of request, that your browser should make when the user submits the form to the server. Typically for forms, the browser can make GET requests or POST requests, although there are other types of requests that you might learn when learning to use other technologies.

The difference between a GET request and a POST request is beyond the scope of this course, but a POST rest is generally used when your form input data contains something sensitive (such as a username/password or credit card information), when you're performing database operations, when you are allowing a user to include large amounts of data in the inputs, or when you're allowing the user to upload a file. The rest of the time, you should use a GET request because GET requests are faster and more efficient. For this course, it really doesn't matter which one you use. If you're using my PHP script mentioned earlier, you can use either one, as the script is able to handle both GET and POST requests.

<form name="quiz" method="GET" action="php/checkAnswers.php">
    <!-- other form input elements -->

Note that the words "GET" and "POST" can also be written as "get" and "post", but most developers use upper-case to make the code more readable.

Now that you know how to create a form container, let's look at how to create the basic input elements so you can create some input fields.

Common Attributes

Before looking at the form input elements, let's take a look at the common attributes that all form input elements use. That way we don't have to re-explain them every time we learn a new input element.

The name And id Attributes

As you'll learn the different form elements, you'll notice there are some attributes they all have in common. Two important attributes are the name and id attributes.

The name Attribute

The name attribute is the same attribute we saw earlier with the <form> element. It is used to provide an identifier or name to a form input element. When form data is sent to the server, it's sent as a series of "key-value" pairs where the "key" is the name of the input field and the value is whatever value the user typed into that field. For example, you might have a field where the user enters their first name, so you might use name="firstName" on this input element. If the user enters the value "Sonja" intr the first name field, the data is set to the server as firstName=Sonja. In your server-side program that processes the form, you then are able to retrieve the first name "Sonja" by using the "firstName" key.

drawing of a form with a firstName field, user entered the value Sonja
Input values are sent to the server as key-value pairs.

It's vital that every single form element have a name attached to it, otherwise you can't access the form inputs in your server-side program that processes the form.

There are certain situations in which you might have more than one form input element with the same name. The most common example is when a single input field requires multiple elements, such as a set of radio buttons. For example, you might have a set of radio buttons that allows the user to input a choice of pizza size:

Choose Pizza Size:

In this example, pizza size is a single input field: it should only have one value (Extra-Large, Large, Medium, or Small). We use four radio buttons to present the user with the four choices, and they can only choose one. Therefore, the selected choice's value is sent to the server; none of the unselected choices are sent. If we decide that the name of this field is "pizzaSize", then every radio button needs to have the name="pizzaSize" attribute to identify that they are all a single input, and that only the selected button's value is sent to the server as the value for "pizzaSize". For example, if the user selects Large, the form might send pizzaSize=Large to the server. You'll learn more about the details of how this works when you learn to create radio buttons.

The id Attribute

The id attribute seems similar to the name attribute: the id attribute identifies a unique ID for an element. This attribute is used for client-side scripting, CSS styling, and for the for attribute in accessible labels, as you'll see later.

The id attribute value must be unique over the entire HTML page; an ID value can't be re-used for multiple elements. In the pizza size example, you could not give each radio button the same ID, you would have to give them all a unique id value. In the pizza example, this is mostly to ensure that the labels are accessible, and you'll learn the details of this later.

To summarize the differences between name and id:

name vs. id
name attribute id attribute
Purpose Name of a control for server-side scripts. Name of a control for client-side technologies.
Unique? Doesn't have to be unique in certain situations e.g several radio buttons share the same name to be in a "group" Must always be unique within a single HTML page.
Usage Is only used on <form> elements and form input elements. Can be used on any HTML element.
CSS? Has no use in CSS styling. Can be used for CSS styling to style that specific element.
Accessible Labels Does not work with the "for" attribute on input fields. Is used in conjunction with the for attribute to link a <label> to an input element.

All of your input elements will have a name attribute. You'll only need an id attribute for elements that need to be linked to a prompt label (and as I keep saying, we'll learn about this later).

Element name/id values need to be self-documenting. This means that another programmer should be able to accurately guess what the name means or what it's for. For example, earlier we used "firstName" and "pizzaSize": these are self-documenting names. Avoid ambiguous names that mean nothing (such as "a" or "foo") or names that have multiple meantins (such as "stat" - status? statutory holiday? statistic? state?). Note that sometimes we use such names in examples/demonstrations that aren't for any specific piece of data to avoid confusion.

Some developers often prefix the name with some lower-case letters to help identify the type of form input element. For example, we often prefix the form name with "frm", text input fields with "txt", and check boxes with "chk". Generally, the prefixes follow the rules above in that they're easy to figure out and have a single meaning.

title and placeholder

Another helpful attribute is the title attribute, which is actually a global attribute (you can use it with any HTML element). The title attribute can serve several different purposes. It's primary use is to provide extra information to assistive devices, so that information can be conveyed to users with various disabilities. You've also seen it used on the <abbr> element, where it is used to provide the full phrase or name that the abbreviation stands for (see also Elements for Text-Level Semantics).

title can also be added to an element to provide extra information about the content inside the element. When a user hovers over the element, the title appears as a tool tip. Also, when a user with a screen reader encounters the element, the text inside the title attribute is read aloud.

The title attribute shouldn't be used as a substute for a <label> element attached to a form input field but it can be used as an input's accessible name (see WCAG Technique H56 (opens in ref tab/window). The title element is not handled consistently in all browsers: visually it appears as a tool tip when the user hovers their mouse over the element; some screen readers will read it out and some won't. Additionally, if a user uses only keyboard navigation, the title does not appear since the user doesn't have any means to hover over an element. Lastly, some touch screens don't support "hover" or if they do, it often requires fine dexterity that users with mobility issues don't have.

With forms, you could use title to provide information about the expected input to a form field:

The field above was created with the following code:

<label for="txtFullName">Full Name:
  <input type="text" name="txtFullName" id="txtFullName" 
      title="Enter your first and last name.">

But again, if this information is important, you need to create an alternative for users that can't access the title via mouse hover. A common alternative is to add a paragraph or div of the title text on the screen, and you add an additional aria-describedby attribute for screen readers (this technique is covered in creating accessible forms).

Similar to title, the placeholder attribute can also be used to give the user a hint about your form element. Unlike title, placeholder only works with form elements. The text appears inside the input field as long as the field doesn't have the focus (the cursor/insertion point isn't inside the field).

Here's an example:

The field above was created with the following code:

<label for="txtFullName">Full Name:
  <input type="text" name="txtFullName" id="txtFullName" 
      title="Enter your first and last name." placeholder="FirstName LastName">

As with title, placeholder lacks consistent accessibility in most browsers. If you really do need to use placeholder (for example, you're form doesn't have enough room on smaller devices, then add the aria-label="" or aria-labelledby attribute. The value of the these attributes is a string (aria-label) or the id (aria-labelledby) of the element that contains the text you would normally have put in the element's <label> or placeholder="" attribute. For more information, see WCAG Technique ARIA6 (opens in the ref tab/window). This technique is covered in creating accessible forms)

Now that you know the common attributes used with form input elements, let's finally start learning the elements!

The Input Element

The <input> element is used to create an input field where the user can enter data into the form. This tag supports different types of input fields, including:

That's a lot of different ways to get user inputs! We'll look at most of these types in detail, but some of them are really only useful if you're doing server-side form processing, so they will be discussed in other courses.

The <input> tag has a set of attributes that you can use to define what the input control should look like and how it should work. Some of these attributes are:

As a basic example, here is the code for a text field with an input size of 15 and some default text:

<input name="txtUserName" type="text" size="15" value="Arti">

The example above appears as:

There are other attributes that are specific to different types of input controls; we'll look at these individually as needed.

Text Boxes

A lot of inputs can be gathered from a form using simple text boxes. A text box is just a blank field where the user can type anything they want. You would typically use a text field for things like a name or numeric value. Text boxes contain a single line of text; if you're interested in multi-line text input, you'll want to use the Text Area control.

To create a text box in an HTML form, you use the <input> element with the type attribute set to "text":

<label for="txtUserName">User Name:
  <input name="txtUserName" id="txtUserName" type="text">

In the above example, a text box called "txtUserName" is displayed, like this:

Note that you can click in the field to put the insertion point inside it, but because we used <label for="">, you can also click on the label text to do the same thing. This is helpful if you have trouble selecting or clicking things on the screen. We'll talk more about this in the next section.

Input Labels

Form input elements generally have labels or prompts attached to them. These tell the user what input is required in each field. In the example below, there are 2 form fields with labels. The labels indicate that the first form field needs a user name and the second form field needs a password.

a label containing User Name: in front
               of an empty input field, and then a label containing Password: in front
               of an empty input field
The "User Name:" and "Password:" labels tell the user what to type inside each input field.

The <label></label> element can be used in several different ways, but the most common and the most accessible is to nest a form input element inside the <label></label> element. For example:

<label for="txtUserName">User Name: 
  <input type="text" name="txtUserName" id="txtUserName">

It's important for accessible forms to make sure that input fields with labels use the for/id attributes AND nest the input inside the label element.

Labels and Inputs: Demonstration

See the Pen Forms: Label Elements by Wendi Jollymore (@ProfWendi) on CodePen.

Password Fields

Password fields can be created by using type="password" in your input tag. A password field is a text field that shows *'s (asterisks) or dots • when the user types in it. The contents of the text field will be the characters typed by the user, but the characters will show up as asterisks/dots on the screen. This is useful if you want the user to enter something confidential, such as a password!

To see how a password works, we'll try this code:

<label for="txtUserPass">Password
  <input type="password" name="txtUserPass" id="txtUserPass" size="10">

Try it:

Other Input Types

As you noticed earlier, there are several other input types. We'll cover those in the next lesson after learn a bit more of the basics, so you can practice first.


Buttons are used to trigger events. Events are things that happen that cause code to execute, such as clicking the Submit button on a form (which causes the form to submit). Most forms that will be processed server-side will need a Submit button. A Reset button is also useful to reset a form. Generic buttons are useful if you want to create a form that is processed client-side using JavaScript.

Submit and Reset Buttons

The input tag can be used to create Submit and Reset buttons by simply using type="submit" or type="reset.

<div><input type="submit" value="Submit"> <input type="reset" value="Reset"></div>

Try it: click the submit button above.

Usually when clicked, a Submit button will trigger form processing as defined by the form's action attribute. You can also add JavaScript to execute, instead. We won't cover form processing in this course.

A Reset button will trigger a page reload and therefore will automatically clear and reset all the input fields on the form. The reset button up above doesn't work because I disabled it: otherwise the page would reload and you'd lose your place!

By default, the Submit and Reset buttons contain the captions "Submit" and "Reset", respectively. However, we still add the value="" attribute to make sure each button has an accessible name. To change the captions, just change the value inside the value attribute:

<input type="submit" value="Log In" name="btnLogin"><br>
<input type="reset" value="Clear Form" name="btnClear">

An alternative to the <input> element is the <button> element. Unlike <input>, <button> has an opening tag and a closing tag. However, you can also use type="submit" and type="reset" to create Submit/Reset buttons, and you can also use value to change the caption and accessible name for the button. Alternatively, you can change the caption and accessible name on a <button> element by putting the caption/name inside the opening and closing tags:

<div><button type="submit">Log In</button></div>
<div><button type="reset">Clear Form</button></div>

One major difference between <input> and <button> for submit buttons, is that coding simply <button>Click Me</button> automatically creates a SUBMIT button. This will become important when you start using generic buttons.

Generic Buttons

You can also create your own custom button by using type="button" in the <input> element or the <button element. These buttons don't do anything automatically when clicked. If you want them to do something, you give them an event handler, which is a block of code that executes when a specific event occurs. For example, you could create an ADD button that has an event handler that adds two numeric inputs when the user clicks on the button (a "click" event). You create event handlers using a language like JavaScript, so we won't cover that in this course.

<input type="button" value="Add To Cart" name="addCart">

You can also use <button> to create generic buttons, however note that:

<button type="button" name="add1">Add</button>
<button name="add2">Add</button>

does not create two generic buttons. When using the <button> element, leaving out the type="" attribute creates a submit button. So the second button is exactly the same as <button type="submit" name="add1">Add</button>!

You might use a generic button if you wanted to execute a script or function without causing a page refresh or without sending the form data to the server.

Now that you've learned some of the basics of forms, you should practice with some basic forms. Then you'll be ready to learn more about other kinds of input elements.


  1. Create a form that allows the user to register for an account by choosing a username and a password. The user should also be able to confirm the password they entered by typing it in a second password field.
    a form with a field Choose a User Name and two fields for a password, Choose a Password and Confirm Password; two buttons: Register and Clear
    A simple User Registration form
  2. Create a form that allows the user to enter information about ticket sales for various shows. They should be able to enter the name of the show, the number of tickets available to purchase, and the price per ticket. There is a submit button with the text "Purchase", and a reset button.
    as described above; the text field prompts are Show Name, Ticket Quantity, and Ticket Price
    A form to collect information about show tickets